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Philosophical Basis

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Supervision is "...the process of helping the teacher reduce the discrepancy between actual teaching behaviors and ideal teaching behaviors  -Acheson & Gall

Supervision

John Dewey (1933)
  • Reflective practitioners are those that balance between experience (action) and guided analysis (reflection)
  • Human growth is a determinant of human behavior in a democratic society.
  • The term "active learning"
  • Surrounding must be conducive to having experiences that lead to growth

Supervisors can play a key role in this process by modeling how to become a reflective practitioner; demonstrating strategies for how to make the learning process more meaningful.  Supervisors also help in guiding the learner through the process of active learning, providing feedback, suggestions, and positive moral support as the learner in turn becomes the teacher.  The supervisor also works to maintain a positive learning environment so that the learner has the capacity to develop and flourish in a successful developmental environment.

Cogan (1973) & Goldhammer (1966)

  • 'Supervisor' must establish a "helping trusting" relationship
  • To get the most out of the supervisory process, a climate of trust and open communication must exist. That is, teachers must feel comfortable enough to "be themselves" and teach as they normally would when being observed, and they must feel confident enough that that the supervisor is going to consider their comments relevant (Acheson & Gall, 1980; Cogan, 1973; Garman, 1982; Goldhammer, 1978).

  • The clinical supervision concept is intended to be a cyclic process. This implies that supervision process is not a one time "drop in" event, but rather, the teacher and supervisor will work together through a series of cycles to enhance the teachers abilities.

Supervisors must foster a relationship of trust and respect between themself and the learner.  Supervisors must be reliable in keeping their commitments and promises, and their words must be consistent with their actions.  Steven R. Covey has said, "Trust is the highest form of human motivation; it brings out the very best in people." Supervisor's need to develop such relationship so that the learner is open to becoming the best teacher he or she is capable of becoming.

Hunt (1971), Loevinger (1976) & Kohlberg (1969)

  • Knowing the stages (conceptual, ego and moral) of cognitive growth empowers supervisors to best support their students

As supervisor's come to know those that they work with they are better prepared to support them at the developmental level at which they are at currently as well as encourage them to progress to the next level by recommending various strategies and actions that will support them in this process (i.e.:  concrete, hands on experiences, experiences with the curriculum, expanding their thinking, etc)

Vygotsky (1978)

  • Zone of Proximal Development

Understanding Vygotsky's theory is crucial in knowing how to appropriately support teachers within the developmental process.  It defines the balance that supervisors need to find as they provide sufficient support so that new teachers can feel successful in their learning as well as offer sufficient encouragement so that the they're willing to take risks as they learn to expand their reportoire of expertise.

Pajak (2001)

  • Personal commitment and involment that transcends the categories of content knowlege and pedagogical skill

Reiman & Theis-Sprinthall (1998)

  • There are five interacting conditions to raise the cognitive developmental level of the teacher as an adult learner:  role taking, reflection, balance, continuity, and support and challenge.

Each of these five areas are crucial for learners as they are developing into seasoned teachers and supervisors can play a significant role in this process.  My role as supervisor

John Dewey (1933)
  • Reflective practitioners are those that balance between experience (action) and guided analysis (reflection)
  • Human growth is a determinant of human behavior in a democratic society.
  • The term "active learning"
  • Surrounding must be conducive to having experiences that lead to growth

Supervisors can play a key role in this process by modeling how to become a reflective practitioner; demonstrating strategies for how to make the learning process more meaningful.  Supervisors also help in guiding the learner through the process of active learning, providing feedback, suggestions, and positive moral support as the learner in turn becomes the teacher.  The supervisor also works to maintain a positive learning environment so that the learner has the capacity to develop and flourish in a successful developmental environment.

Cogan (1973) & Goldhammer (1966)

  • 'Supervisor' must establish a "helping trusting" relationship
  • To get the most out of the supervisory process, a climate of trust and open communication must exist. That is, teachers must feel comfortable enough to "be themselves" and teach as they normally would when being observed, and they must feel confident enough that that the supervisor is going to consider their comments relevant (Acheson & Gall, 1980; Cogan, 1973; Garman, 1982; Goldhammer, 1978).

  • The clinical supervision concept is intended to be a cyclic process. This implies that supervision process is not a one time "drop in" event, but rather, the teacher and supervisor will work together through a series of cycles to enhance the teachers abilities.

Supervisors must foster a relationship of trust and respect between themself and the learner.  Supervisors must be reliable in keeping their commitments and promises, and their words must be consistent with their actions.  Steven R. Covey has said, "Trust is the highest form of human motivation; it brings out the very best in people." Supervisor's need to develop such relationship so that the learner is open to becoming the best teacher he or she is capable of becoming.

Hunt (1971), Loevinger (1976) & Kohlberg (1969)

  • Knowing the stages (conceptual, ego and moral) of cognitive growth empowers supervisors to best support their students

As supervisor's come to know those that they work with they are better prepared to support them at the developmental level at which they are at currently as well as encourage them to progress to the next level by recommending various strategies and actions that will support them in this process (i.e.:  concrete, hands on experiences, experiences with the curriculum, expanding their thinking, etc)

Vygotsky (1978)

  • Zone of Proximal Development

Understanding Vygotsky's theory is crucial in knowing how to appropriately support teachers within the developmental process.  It defines the balance that supervisors need to find as they provide sufficient support so that new teachers can feel successful in their learning as well as offer sufficient encouragement so that the they're willing to take risks as they learn to expand their reportoire of expertise.

Pajak (2001)

  • Personal commitment and involment that transcends the categories of content knowlege and pedagogical skill

Reiman & Theis-Sprinthall (1998)

  • There are five interacting conditions to raise the cognitive developmental level of the teacher as an adult learner:  role taking, reflection, balance, continuity, and support and challenge.

Each of these five areas are crucial for learners as they are developing into seasoned teachers and supervisors can play a significant role in this process.  My role as supervisor

  • Reflective practitioners are those that balance between experience (action) and guided analysis (reflection)
  • Human growth is a determinant of human behavior in a democratic society.
  • The term "active learning"
  • Surrounding must be conducive to having experiences that lead to growth

Supervisors can play a key role in this process by modeling how to become a reflective practitioner; demonstrating strategies for how to make the learning process more meaningful.  Supervisors also help in guiding the learner through the process of active learning, providing feedback, suggestions, and positive moral support as the learner in turn becomes the teacher.  The supervisor also works to maintain a positive learning environment so that the learner has the capacity to develop and flourish in a successful developmental environment.

Cogan & Goldhammer

  • 'Supervisor' must establish a "helping trusting" relationship
  • To get the most out of the supervisory process, a climate of trust and open communication must exist. That is, teachers must feel comfortable enough to "be themselves" and teach as they normally would when being observed, and they must feel confident enough that that the supervisor is going to consider their comments relevant (Acheson & Gall, 1980; Cogan, 1973; Garman, 1982; Goldhammer, 1978).

  • The clinical supervision concept is intended to be a cyclic process. This implies that supervision process is not a one time "drop in" event, but rather, the teacher and supervisor will work together through a series of cycles to enhance the teachers abilities.

Supervisors must foster a relationship of trust and respect between themself and the learner.  Supervisors must be reliable in keeping their commitments and promises, and their words must be consistent with their actions.  Steven R. Covey has said, "Trust is the highest form of human motivation; it brings out the very best in people." Supervisor's need to develop such relationship so that the learner is open to becoming the best teacher he or she is capable of becoming.

Hunt, Loevinger & Kohlberg

  • Knowing the stages (conceptual, ego and moral) of cognitive growth empowers supervisors to best support their students

As supervisor's come to know those that they work with they are better prepared to support them at the developmental level at which they are at currently as well as encourage them to progress to the next level by recommending various strategies and actions that will support them in this process (i.e.:  concrete, hands on experiences, experiences with the curriculum, expanding their thinking, etc)

Vygotsky "

  • Zone of Proximal Development"

Understanding Vygotsky's theory is crucial in knowing how to appropriately support teachers within the developmental process.  It defines the balance that supervisors need to find as they provide sufficient support so that new teachers can feel successful in their learning as well as offer sufficient encouragement so that the they're willing to take risks as they learn to expand their reportoire of expertise.

Pajak

  • Personal commitment and involment that transcends the categories of content knowlege and pedagogical skill

Sprinthall & Thies

  • There are five interacting conditions to raise the cognitive developmental level of the teacher as an adult learner:  role taking, reflection, balance, continuity, and support and challenge.

Each of these five areas are crucial for learners as they are developing into seasoned teachers and supervisors can play a significant role in this process.  My role as supervisor

John Dewey (1933)
  • Reflective practitioners are those that balance between experience (action) and guided analysis (reflection)
  • Human growth is a determinant of human behavior in a democratic society.
  • The term "active learning"
  • Surrounding must be conducive to having experiences that lead to growth

Supervisors can play a key role in this process by modeling how to become a reflective practitioner; demonstrating strategies for how to make the learning process more meaningful.  Supervisors also help in guiding the learner through the process of active learning, providing feedback, suggestions, and positive moral support as the learner in turn becomes the teacher.  The supervisor also works to maintain a positive learning environment so that the learner has the capacity to develop and flourish in a successful developmental environment.

Cogan (1973) & Goldhammer (1966)

  • 'Supervisor' must establish a "helping trusting" relationship
  • To get the most out of the supervisory process, a climate of trust and open communication must exist. That is, teachers must feel comfortable enough to "be themselves" and teach as they normally would when being observed, and they must feel confident enough that that the supervisor is going to consider their comments relevant (Acheson & Gall, 1980; Cogan, 1973; Garman, 1982; Goldhammer, 1978).

  • The clinical supervision concept is intended to be a cyclic process. This implies that supervision process is not a one time "drop in" event, but rather, the teacher and supervisor will work together through a series of cycles to enhance the teachers abilities.

Supervisors must foster a relationship of trust and respect between themself and the learner.  Supervisors must be reliable in keeping their commitments and promises, and their words must be consistent with their actions.  Steven R. Covey has said, "Trust is the highest form of human motivation; it brings out the very best in people." Supervisor's need to develop such relationship so that the learner is open to becoming the best teacher he or she is capable of becoming.

Hunt (1971), Loevinger (1976) & Kohlberg (1969)

  • Knowing the stages (conceptual, ego and moral) of cognitive growth empowers supervisors to best support their students

As supervisor's come to know those that they work with they are better prepared to support them at the developmental level at which they are at currently as well as encourage them to progress to the next level by recommending various strategies and actions that will support them in this process (i.e.:  concrete, hands on experiences, experiences with the curriculum, expanding their thinking, etc)

Vygotsky (1978)

  • Zone of Proximal Development

Understanding Vygotsky's theory is crucial in knowing how to appropriately support teachers within the developmental process.  It defines the balance that supervisors need to find as they provide sufficient support so that new teachers can feel successful in their learning as well as offer sufficient encouragement so that the they're willing to take risks as they learn to expand their reportoire of expertise.

Pajak (2001)

  • Personal commitment and involment that transcends the categories of content knowlege and pedagogical skill

Reiman & Theis-Sprinthall (1998)

  • There are five interacting conditions to raise the cognitive developmental level of the teacher as an adult learner:  role taking, reflection, balance, continuity, and support and challenge.

Each of these five areas are crucial for learners as they are developing into seasoned teachers and supervisors can play a significant role in this process.  My role as supervisor

  • Reflective practitioners are those that balance between experience (action) and guided analysis (reflection)
  • Human growth is a determinant of human behavior in a democratic society.
  • The term "active learning"
  • Surrounding must be conducive to having experiences that lead to growth

Supervisors can play a key role in this process by modeling how to become a reflective practitioner; demonstrating strategies for how to make the learning process more meaningful.  Supervisors also help in guiding the learner through the process of active learning, providing feedback, suggestions, and positive moral support as the learner in turn becomes the teacher.  The supervisor also works to maintain a positive learning environment so that the learner has the capacity to develop and flourish in a successful developmental environment.

Cogan & Goldhammer

  • 'Supervisor' must establish a "helping trusting" relationship
  • To get the most out of the supervisory process, a climate of trust and open communication must exist. That is, teachers must feel comfortable enough to "be themselves" and teach as they normally would when being observed, and they must feel confident enough that that the supervisor is going to consider their comments relevant (Acheson & Gall, 1980; Cogan, 1973; Garman, 1982; Goldhammer, 1978).

  • The clinical supervision concept is intended to be a cyclic process. This implies that supervision process is not a one time "drop in" event, but rather, the teacher and supervisor will work together through a series of cycles to enhance the teachers abilities.

Supervisors must foster a relationship of trust and respect between themself and the learner.  Supervisors must be reliable in keeping their commitments and promises, and their words must be consistent with their actions.  Steven R. Covey has said, "Trust is the highest form of human motivation; it brings out the very best in people." Supervisor's need to develop such relationship so that the learner is open to becoming the best teacher he or she is capable of becoming.

Hunt, Loevinger & Kohlberg

  • Knowing the stages (conceptual, ego and moral) of cognitive growth empowers supervisors to best support their students

As supervisor's come to know those that they work with they are better prepared to support them at the developmental level at which they are at currently as well as encourage them to progress to the next level by recommending various strategies and actions that will support them in this process (i.e.:  concrete, hands on experiences, experiences with the curriculum, expanding their thinking, etc)

Vygotsky "

  • Zone of Proximal Development"

Understanding Vygotsky's theory is crucial in knowing how to appropriately support teachers within the developmental process.  It defines the balance that supervisors need to find as they provide sufficient support so that new teachers can feel successful in their learning as well as offer sufficient encouragement so that the they're willing to take risks as they learn to expand their reportoire of expertise.

Pajak

  • Personal commitment and involment that transcends the categories of content knowlege and pedagogical skill

Sprinthall & Thies

  • There are five interacting conditions to raise the cognitive developmental level of the teacher as an adult learner:  role taking, reflection, balance, continuity, and support and challenge.

Each of these five areas are crucial for learners as they are developing into seasoned teachers and supervisors can play a significant role in this process.  My role as supervisor

 

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